Let's Model a Car: A Tutorial 1-20  21-40  41-60  61-79

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 Car Tutorial Part 4 - Wheel openings, Rims and Tires Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Wheel Openings: In side view draw a closed curve for the wheel opening. I started with a 15” radius circle and modified its points to make the curve below. Extrude the curve (with Cap Ends checked) to the depth of the wheel well. Make three copies and position in place for the remaining wheels. Perform Boolean > Difference to make the wheel opening. Select the outer edges of the wheel opening and Fillet 0.3”. Rims and Tires: There are tutorials in the MoI forum and elsewhere on the web for making Nurbs car rims. A great one by Majik Mike is here: http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=5470.1 My method below is pretty straightforward and I’ve included my 3DM file below for those who want to try it. The shape and contour of the spokes is easily changed by modifying one or two curves. Draw a profile curve for the top half of the rim. There are wheel blueprints on the web to use as a guide, or use the curve in my attached 3DM file. Draw the profile 10” high by 10” wide. This profile curve will get revolved into a 20” diameter rim after a few steps. When completely finished, we’ll resize our finished wheel / tire combination to the exact desired diameter and width via the Edit Size window. Next we’ll draw the cutting object to define the spokes from the front view. Think of this object as the negative space between the spokes. Draw a 9.1” radius circle and a 12.3” x 9.1” triangle and arrange as follows: Perform Boolean > Isect, selecting the triangle then the circle. Select the resulting “slice of pie” closed curve and Fillet 1.0”. Tip: We will instruct MoI later to perform a single, yet complex, fillet operation on the spokes. For cutting objects like this I find it’s best to construct them with Boolean operations and fillets rather than hand-draw the curve. A complex fillet operation works much better when curves and radius corners are constructed with precision. Arrange the rim profile curve and the green cutting profile above as follows. We will sweep the green profile closed curve into a solid cutting object. To do so, add two rails (green curves) to guide and shape the sweep. Sweep the cutting profile using the two rails (Auto Profile, Maintain Height = un-checked, Cap Ends). Select the pink rim profile and perform Construct > Revolve, picking two points on the bottom straight line when asked to pick the revolve axis start and end points. The result is our 20” diameter rim. Note that because we Revolved a closed curve, our rim is a solid object. I attached the car_wheel.3dm file below containing the construction curves to give a head start making your own wheel. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (5 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 5 - Wheel openings, Rims and Tires continued Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com In front view select the green cutting solid and Perform Transform > Array > Circular using 5 for the Item Count. Note: Due to the taper in the green cutting objects, the spokes will be larger than they appear below. Select the pink rim, perform Boolean > Difference, and select all five green objects to subtract. Notice below that we have nice single-surface inside corners and large radius features to help insure the fillet process in the next step goes well. You don’t want small slivers of surfaces and curves with non-tangent kinks. Again, starting with a well-made cutting object is the key. Select all the green surfaces and Fillet 0.4” Circular. The rim looks good from the inside as well. Let’s add some detail to the spokes next. Make a pocket on the spokes to add some interest. This is a challenge because we want to pocket a complex object, with the bottom of the pocket matching the curvature of the top surface. I tried various methods using extrusions, trims, insets, lofts, blends with limited success. So, after experimentation I ended up using the following pocketing technique for complex shapes: Make a closed curve to define the shape of the pocket. I drew one straight line at an angle, Mirrored it, and used Blend at Bulge = 0.7, Continuity = Tangent (G1) to form the rounded ends. Select and Join all four line segments into a closed curve. Position the cyan closed curve over the spoke. Perform Construct > Curve > Project to map the closed curve onto the spoke. We need to produce a surface for making the pocket. To do so, select the wheel and perform Trim, using the projected curve as the cutting object. I assigned a cyan style to the trimmed surface for visual clarity. Select the cyan surface and Construct > Offset Shell. I used a 0.8” shell. Just be sure to use a value that doesn’t puncture through the back of the spoke. The resulting shelled object with the wheel hidden for clarity. Now, we need to keep the cyan object while reversing the Trim operation we made in the prior step. So, select the cyan object and press Ctrl-C to save it to the clipboard. Then hit the Undo button (4 times in my case) until the wheel reverts back to a solid object. ( I tried to Join the wheel back into a solid after the Trim, but without success, thus the Ctrl-C and Undo trick). Ctrl-V to paste the cyan object back. (Hide the wheel and you’ll see it.) Select the cyan object and Circular Array to duplicate it onto each spoke. Boolean > Difference the wheel while selecting all five cyan objects as the objects to subtract (you may need to hide the wheel to select the five cyan objects). Pocketed spokes: Select the top edges around all five pockets and Fillet 0.2” with Shape = Circular Note: There were several very short edge pieces, so be sure to zoom in when selecting edges. Filleted spoke pockets are shown below. I’ll leave them cyan Style so I can assign a unique material in the render program, such as a dark rough cast surface, to set this feature apart from the rest of the wheel. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

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 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (7 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 7 – Front Grill Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Front Grill: Draw a closed curve of the grill outline in front view. Extrude (with Cap Ends) into the car body. Boolean > Difference to create the cavity. Fillet the grill opening 0.4”. We’ll assign a mesh material using an opacity map in our render program. This gives us design flexibly we wouldn’t have if we modeled the mesh. Grill Bar: Our front end needs some chrome trim to accent the grill opening. In front view select the edge(s) around the fillet that define the grill opening. Ctrl+C Ctrl+V to copy / paste. When you copy / paste an edge this way, the “paste” becomes an independent curve object which is automatically selected. Join to create a closed curve and assign a unique style to the curve. In front view and side view, size the curve smaller because we want it to “float” inside the grill opening. You may need to View Points and make some adjustments to the curve so it sits correctly within the opening. Draw a 0.15” radius circle and place it near, but not touching, the curve. Use the circle as a Profile to Sweep the curve. The result is a tube which will be assigned a chrome material in the render program. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (8 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 8 – Hood Scoops Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Hood Scoops: Note: You may also want to try this technique: http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=4880.31 Draw a closed curve in top view to define one scoop area. Mirror the curve and position both over the hood. Select the car body faces below the curve. Trim the curve with the selected faces. (Don’t trim with the entire car otherwise you’ll cut through the bottom.) Scale each scoop panel to reduce length by 13” and width by 5". Resize the Z dimension to reduce the curvature (verify in side view) to better match the curvature of the hood. Center the panels within the openings, then position them just a little toward the front of the car. In side view, rotate the panels so they drop toward the front of the car. First, reposition the pivot point of the rotate tool to the rear of the panels. Select edges of scoop and edges of corresponding body opening. Blend with G2 Continuity and Bulge = 0.25 The images below show the Pivot point moved to the rear of the scoop panels to allow the panels to swing down: Hood Scoop Grill: In top view draw a closed curve for the hood scoop grill. Perform Curve > Project to map the curve onto the hood scoop. Be sure the curve has a good size radius on the ends because we need room for the fillet that comes later. Mirror the closed curve onto the opposite hood scoop. Extrude the projected closed curve a couple of inches (with Both Sides checked). This will be our cutting object. Select the car body and perform Boolean > Difference using the extraction as the object to subtract. The result is a new surface in the solid car body. Assign a unique Style to this hood grill surface. Select the surface and Extrude 0.6” (with Both Sides and Cap Ends checked). The result is a solid. Select the bottom face of the blue solid and Fillet 0.2” with Shape = Const Dist. Select the car body and Boolean > Difference the blue solid. Select the hood grill top edge and Fillet 0.34” with Shape = Const Dist. Render with a bump map for the black grill: EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (9 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 9 –Side Scoop Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Side Scoops: There are multiple ways to make a scoop like this (blends, n-sided, lofts). After experimenting with a few techniques I decided to use the following: In side view draw a closed curve for the side scoop. Notice all three corners have a radius to enable a good sized fillet later. Also, keep the corners away from the body seams, as doing so will help insure a good fillet. In side view draw a closed “D” shape closed curve slightly taller than the scoop. In top view draw an arc that is slightly longer than the scoop curve. Arrange as follows: Sweep the “D” shape profile curve using the arc as a rail (with Cap Ends checked). In top view Extrude the scoop profile curve (Both Sides = checked). Perform Boolean > Isect using the two solids. The result is the cutting object for our side scoop. Select the curved face nearest the car body and Fillet 0.16 Circular. Position the object so it intersects the car body far enough to insure we can fillet the outer edges. Select the object and Mirror it to the opposite side of the car. Select the car body and Boolean > Difference using the side scope as the cutting object. Select the outer edges of the side scoop and Fillet 0.22” with Shape = Const Dist. Repeat for the scoop on the opposite side. Let’s add a simple chrome piece to the scoop. In side view, draw an ellipse and size it as desired. Draw a straight line through the two “quad” points and Trim it in half lengthwise. Revolve the resulting curve into a solid. Move and rotate the solid into place so it intersects the car body. Mirror the object to the opposite side scoop. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (10 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 10 - Tail lights Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Tail light Opening: Draw a large solid sphere (purple) and use the sizing handles to flatten it down. Check rear and side views for proper depth into the car body. In side view, slightly rotate the squashed sphere for best appearance. In back view, draw an oval (the yellow closed curve shown above) and use it as a cutting object to Trim the squashed sphere. This cut-out allows the rear lid of the car body to protrude. Select the car body and the tail light object (purple) and run Boolean > Merge. We use Merge because it keeps all the pieces we need to move forward. A single Merge operation will create three objects: 1) The taillight opening (cavity), 2) The tail light (solid), and 3) A left-over solid piece of the purple cutting object that we’ll discard. Immediately after the Merge, select the purple cutting object (by clicking on it at the back, NOT by selecting it in the Style window, because the cavity we want to keep is also the purple Style), and delete it. After the deletion, you’ll see the tail light solid. Select it and give it a new Style (light red). Hide the light red tail light. Hey – There’s our purple cavity created from the earlier Merge! Why do we want the purple cavity even though it will be covered by the light red tail light? 1) We will assign an emissive light material to it in our render program so it back lights the tail light lens. 2) We will create a fillet around the cavity opening for a nice look. With the light red tail light hidden, select the car body + purple cavity and fillet 0.4”. At this point our car body remains a solid. Now, un-hide the light red tail light and give it a Fillet of 0.25”. Rendered result with a red glass material utilizing a bump map for texture: Add a turn signal / backup light: Draw a curve to define the light in rear view. Mirror the curve to place it on the opposite side. Perform Boolean > Merge and select the tail light and both turn-signal curves. The result is three solids. Assign a unique Style to the turn signals and Fillet 0.1”. In my render program I applied an emissive material to the taillight opening surface that sits behind the taillight. The actual taillight does not have an emissive material – it has a glass material with a cube texture map. Thus the light shines through the taillight “lens”. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (11 of 79)

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (12 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 12 – Headlight Assemblies Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com We’ll need a pair of headlight assemblies to go inside the buckets. Headlight assemblies can get very detailed, but I’ll keep this one simple. A Loft will do the job. Draw four eclipses and arrange as follows. Select the curves in the sequence shown and Loft with Style = Loose and Cap Ends. Assign a unique Style to the lens surface. The dark green lens will hold the emissive material in the render program to create the light. Chrome or paint around the headlight opening? Use what you like best. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF Attachments:

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (13 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 13 – Rear Fascia Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Rear Fascia: In rear view draw an eclispe, and modify its control points to define a closed curve for the fascia. In side view, extrude the curve. Draw a curve to use as a cutting object and Boolean > Difference away the upper left area the extrusion. Select the car body and the green extrusion and Trim. The result of the Trim is a surface representing the fascia. Select the surface and assign the light green fascia style. In side view, select the surface and move it slightly toward the front of the car. This will enable us to create an indentation. Next, slightly reduce the size of the surface proportionally by reducing its length (X) one inch. Select the outer edges of the fascia surface and the edges around the car body opening. Perform Blend with Bulge = 0.01. (You’ll need to type this value in). Higher bulge values created pinching of the blended surface and a tear in the sharp lower corners. So always inspect after using Blend and type in a lower bulge factor if needed. The car body is no longer a solid due to the Trim operation above. So select all the body objects (body, wheel openings, tail light opening, grill, headlight buckets and fascia, and perform a Join. Verify the body is now a solid. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (14 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 14 – Exhaust Tips Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com In rear view draw a 1.4” radius circle for the exhaust. Also draw a 1” radius circle centered. Make two copies of the large circle and one copy of the small circle. In side view arrange them as shown. Select the circles in the order shown and Loft with Style = Loose and Cap Ends. The result is one exhaust tip. Select the exhaust tip and perform Array Dir to duplicate and space apart. Finally, select the face of each tip and assign a unique Style so we can make them black in the render program. We could model an exhaust opening and add fins to the fascia, but that’s level of detail beyond where I want to go with this model. So instead I added a bump map to the fascia material in my render program to create some texture features. Again, using bump maps for smaller details allows flexibility for experimentation in the render program. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (15 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 15 – Windows Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Draw closed curves in side view to define the side windows. Draw a closed curve in top view for the rear window. To see how the windows will appear, Project the curves onto the car body using Curve > Project. Undo and adjust your curve’s control points as needed for best appearance. Now we can create the windows one at a time: Project the rear window curve onto the car body using Curve > Project. Select all the body faces inside and adjoining the window curve. Trim the body using the curve as a cutting object. Select all the cut faces inside the curve and assign a unique Style. In side view Extrude the faces into the car body 0.2” To do so, perform Extrude using the Dir option. Due to the Trim, the car body is no longer a solid. So after extruding each window, select the body and Join. Verify the body is a solid. The windshield will be modeled differently because we can’t project a side curve onto the entire windshield. Instead we’ll just Trim it without using the projection step. With the windshield surfaces selected, change its dimensions proportionally in the Edit box by reducing the Z dimension by 0.1” (with Maintain Proportions checked). This shrinks the entire windshield creating an air gap. In top view, select the edges on both sides of the gap. Perform Blend with Bulge = 1.0. This blend results in a slight step where the windshield meets the body. The step will create highlights and shadows to add definition and realism to the render. You can also assign the blend area a black or chrome Style rather than body paint color if you wish. Due to the Trim operation, the car body is no longer a solid. So after performing the Blend, select the body and Join. Verify the body is a solid. If the body will not join back into a solid it is probably due to the blend not quite meeting all the edges, so undo and try a different Bulge factor. Later I'll show how to add chrome (or black) trim to the windows. But if you prefer the appearance with no window trim, the slight indentation of the windows gives the car nice shadow and highlight definitions in the render program. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

 From: ed (EDDYF) 10 May 2015  (16 of 79)
 Car Tutorial Part 16 – Windows and Trim continued Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com Side Windows: Trim the body with the side window curves. Two window surfaces are the result. Assign the window Style to those surfaces. Next we will use Flow to warp our side widow inward at the rear. In top view create a curve (yellow curve on right) that defines how we want the side window to curve inward at the rear. This is called the Target Curve. Also draw a straight line (yellow) called the Base Curve as required by Flow. Make the two lines exactly the same length as the side window. Deform > Flow the window with the top two check boxes checked (Stretch and Ridged). Delete the original side window and move the new warped (flowed) window into place. I needed to rotate the window slightly in both directions to achieve the desired position. I also needed to reduce the height of the window slightly. As you tilt, resize, and position the window, check it in side and 3D views to be sure you have the desired gap. The gap should be small at the front and smoothly increase toward the rear. Before you continue, save some time by performing Mirror on the side window to duplicate it to the opposite side of the car. Position the mirrored window in place while viewing in top view. The two lines we drew earlier for the Flow are seen on the right in orange. Blend is our friend. So we’ll use it again to blend the windows to the car body. Select the edges that surround the window and the edges that form the window opening. This is done easier in top view. Blend with Bulge = 0.25. Repeat for the opposite window. Due to the Trims, the car body is no longer a solid. So after performing the Blends, select the body and Join. Verify the body is a solid. If the body will not join back into a solid it is probably due to the blend not quite meeting all the edges, so undo and try a different Bulge factor. Window trim is optional: Draw an eclipse and modify its control points to produce a profile curve 0.5” x 0.1” for the window opening trim. Select the edges on the car body that make up a window opening. Ctrl+C Ctrl+V to copy / paste. When you copy / paste an edge this way, the “paste” becomes an independent curve object which is automatically selected. While it is selected, Join into a closed curve. This will be the rail for our Sweep. Perform a Sweep using the window trim profile, and the window opening curve (rail). Assign a new Style to this object. Repeat for each window. Windshield and side window trim shown at top of pillar: Try the trim as chrome or black, or simply hide it. EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF

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