Let's Model a Car: A Tutorial  1-20  21-40  41-60  61-79

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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.1 
Car Tutorial Part 1
Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

You can also download a PDF version of this tutorial here: http://1drv.ms/1PNsXpQ



About this Tutorial:

Modeling a car in MoI is something I’ve always wanted to try. Some nice tutorials were done in the past (search MoI for “car tutorial”), and a few debates have taken place on the forum as to whether MoI is the appropriate tool to use. I hope this tutorial thread doesn’t invite a rehash of those debates.

My personal perspective is that:
1) I prefer to stay within one program.
2) I’m not a professional designer or modeler. I can’t afford the money or the time to use high-end tools.
3) I’m not building a real car. Let’s be clear: These are not manufacturing drawings. Exact dimensions and insane levels of detail are not the goal here. The end goal is to simply express a concept via a render.

Additions to the MoI tool set in versions 2 & 3 make the modeling task easier.

Max Smirnov’s SubD scripts introduced in March 2015 add a new optional feature to MoI : Polygon Modeling.

Advantages of using Polygon Modeling and Nurbs Modeling together:

* You stay 100% inside MoI. No exporting / importing to other programs.

* It’s a hybrid approach: SubD scripts in MoI for the organic body. MoI Nurbs tools for everything else. In other words, we’ll use the appropriate tools for each job.

* All your parts remain in one place so you can see how they fit together.

* All parts are solids. Therefore no painstaking building and matching a patchwork of body panel surfaces built from lofts and sweeps. Changing a simple SubD car body structure is easy for evaluating ideas. But if you choose to model a car body patch-by-patch using surfaces, changes will be difficult.

* Because the car body is a solid, creation of parts like headlight buckets, tail lights, wheel openings, scoops, etc. are done via simple Boolean operations.

* The Boolean, Trim and Blend operations to the car body (scoops, windows, rear fascia, etc) begin by defining curves. Curves can be drawn or constructed very accurately in MoI, so the final model has crisp features.

* If you want to make a different style car there is no need to start over from the beginning. Modifying the basic SubD car body structure is easy. Just move some key vertices to change the wheel base, move the windshield forward, change the roof line, etc. And you can re-use parts you already made with Nurbs such as wheels, rear view mirrors, fuel door assembly, lighting assemblies, etc.

Going Beyond this Tutorial:

The MoI SubD scripts are very effective and may be the only SubD tools you need. The scripts have limitations as of this writing, so if you’re going to need complex SubD objects with control over which edges are hard / soft, I recommend NVil. NVil is a low cost modeling program that has all the specialized tools to make SubD models. Objects made in NVil can be imported into MoI and used in Boolean operations with Nurbs objects.

EDITED: 16 May 2015 by EDDYF

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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.2 In reply to 7389.1 
Car Tutorial Part 2 – Car Body

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com




Model a car in MoI using SubD Scripts:

SubD is short for subdivide, or subdivision. In SubD modeling you’re working with a polygonal mesh. Forming a car body for example begins with constructing a base mesh, then subdividing portions of it into areas you’ll manipulate via the control points at the vertices of the polygons. Think of it as a wire cage that gets deformed by pushing and pulling spots where the wires intersect.

SubD modeling is better suited for organic shapes (blobs). Nurbs modeling, which is the method used in MoI, is better suited for precise shapes that can be defined by profile curves and modified using Boolean operations. So, we’ll make the basic car body in SuD and modify it in a precise way using native MoI Nurbs tools.

You’ll need to first install Max Smirnov’s SubD scripts. See the links below:
http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=6674.51
http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=6674.173
http://moi.maxsm.net/
http://moi.maxsm.net/media/files/ (The file names are download links, click to download the scripts)

I recommend adding dedicated buttons to run the SubD scripts. See:
http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=7245.69

Start by thinking about the type of car you want to make. If you are making a model of an existing car, search the web for blueprints and dimensions. In my case I wanted to make my own design of a sports car having about the same dimensions as a newer Corvette.

Start with Draw Solid > Box to make a rectangular solid 171” long, 77” wide, and 28” high. I tend to first draw things by eye in MoI, and then use the Edit Size box to enter the precise dimensions.



Select the top edge (yellow) of the solid and click the SubD Split button (I’ll assume you created buttons for the SubD scripts, otherwise use your assigned hot key to run the scripts)



Slide the split to 70 as shown in the Split dialog box. Click once to finalize the split.



Select the left upper edge shown by the arrow, and Split lengthwise. Repeat for the opposite side. The exact distance is not important at this stage.



Select the larger top face and Extrude it up 17.5”





Just for fun, select the object and click the SubD button. Now our boxy structure has transformed into some kind of science fiction hover car from the 1930’s. Click Undo to get our boxes back.



It’s a good idea at each stage of this process to make a copy of your model and set it to the side. That way you can always grab an earlier version if things go wrong.

EDITED: 10 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.3 In reply to 7389.2 
Car Tutorial Part 3 – Car Body continued

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Before we start, bring in a reference image via the MoI View > Image button. Having a reference really helps, even if it’s only a hand sketch. I’ll use an orthographic view of my finished car so you can see how it aligns with the model.

Taking the car object we made earlier, add a horizontal Split and align it with the wheel centers. Next add several vertical Splits where you can see changes in the car’s features. At this stage you want to keep the Splits to a minimum, otherwise it’s hard to make broad changes when the “cage” gets too complex.

After adding the Splits, select the object and Show Points. This reveals the vertices that can be moved to refine the cage structure.



Select and move individual Points to line up with features on the car. Remember there are hidden points on the opposite side that you want to move in unison. So rather than clicking on a single point, use the mouse to drag a selection area. This will select all points within the selection area.

Here’s an animation example of moving multiple points:



Here’s an animation example of squeezing the body by moving the boundary box handle:



Also, if points that should be in a straight line get bumped out of alignment, select the points and use Transform > Align to snap them straight.

And, look here for a tip by Lawrence to Trim, Mirror & Join your model in case one half gets out of sync: http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=7383.4

At this stage we don’t want to have too many points. Just adjust this simple cage to get the basic form of the car. Broad changes such as wheelbase, fender height, windshield set-back, etc. are easy to make now, but become more difficult as the cage grows in complexity.



Click the SubD button and we have a shape that is starting to look more like a car.

The car_basic_subD.3dm file is attached below if you want to have a play with the car in this early stage. Use it as a starting point for your own design.



From this point forward, it’s a process of adding Splits and moving Control Points to match key points of the reference car image. Click the SubD button periodically to see how your progress translates into the subdivided object.

As you continue to make point adjustments in side, top, front and rear views the final car will start to emerge. This process may appear a bit lengthy on paper, but in practice I was surprised how fast it went.

Final results:

This is the final object before subdividing. The number of divisions and points was, in my opinion, reaching the upper limit of what can be easily managed. As mentioned earlier, dedicated programs like NVil have a much larger toolset for SubD modeling. But I think the results using these scripts are impressive and greatly expand the possibilities within MoI. Having both Nurbs and SubD, I now consider MoI to be a hybrid modeler.

Side view:


Top view:


Front view:


Rear view:


Final car body before (top) and after subdivision (bottom):

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.4 
Car Tutorial Part 4 - Wheel openings, Rims and Tires

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com



Wheel Openings:
In side view draw a closed curve for the wheel opening. I started with a 15” radius circle and modified its points to make the curve below.



Extrude the curve (with Cap Ends checked) to the depth of the wheel well. Make three copies and position in place for the remaining wheels.



Perform Boolean > Difference to make the wheel opening.
Select the outer edges of the wheel opening and Fillet 0.3”.



Rims and Tires:
There are tutorials in the MoI forum and elsewhere on the web for making Nurbs car rims. A great one by Majik Mike is here: http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=5470.1

My method below is pretty straightforward and I’ve included my 3DM file below for those who want to try it. The shape and contour of the spokes is easily changed by modifying one or two curves.

Draw a profile curve for the top half of the rim. There are wheel blueprints on the web to use as a guide, or use the curve in my attached 3DM file.

Draw the profile 10” high by 10” wide. This profile curve will get revolved into a 20” diameter rim after a few steps. When completely finished, we’ll resize our finished wheel / tire combination to the exact desired diameter and width via the Edit Size window.



Next we’ll draw the cutting object to define the spokes from the front view. Think of this object as the negative space between the spokes.

Draw a 9.1” radius circle and a 12.3” x 9.1” triangle and arrange as follows:
Perform Boolean > Isect, selecting the triangle then the circle.
Select the resulting “slice of pie” closed curve and Fillet 1.0”.



Tip: We will instruct MoI later to perform a single, yet complex, fillet operation on the spokes. For cutting objects like this I find it’s best to construct them with Boolean operations and fillets rather than hand-draw the curve. A complex fillet operation works much better when curves and radius corners are constructed with precision.

Arrange the rim profile curve and the green cutting profile above as follows.



We will sweep the green profile closed curve into a solid cutting object. To do so, add two rails (green curves) to guide and shape the sweep.



Sweep the cutting profile using the two rails (Auto Profile, Maintain Height = un-checked, Cap Ends).



Select the pink rim profile and perform Construct > Revolve, picking two points on the bottom straight line when asked to pick the revolve axis start and end points.

The result is our 20” diameter rim. Note that because we Revolved a closed curve, our rim is a solid object.

I attached the car_wheel.3dm file below containing the construction curves to give a head start making your own wheel.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.5 
Car Tutorial Part 5 - Wheel openings, Rims and Tires continued

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

In front view select the green cutting solid and Perform Transform > Array > Circular using 5 for the Item Count. Note: Due to the taper in the green cutting objects, the spokes will be larger than they appear below.



Select the pink rim, perform Boolean > Difference, and select all five green objects to subtract.
Notice below that we have nice single-surface inside corners and large radius features to help insure the fillet process in the next step goes well. You don’t want small slivers of surfaces and curves with non-tangent kinks. Again, starting with a well-made cutting object is the key.



Select all the green surfaces and Fillet 0.4” Circular.



The rim looks good from the inside as well.



Let’s add some detail to the spokes next.
Make a pocket on the spokes to add some interest. This is a challenge because we want to pocket a complex object, with the bottom of the pocket matching the curvature of the top surface. I tried various methods using extrusions, trims, insets, lofts, blends with limited success.

So, after experimentation I ended up using the following pocketing technique for complex shapes:
Make a closed curve to define the shape of the pocket. I drew one straight line at an angle, Mirrored it, and used Blend at Bulge = 0.7, Continuity = Tangent (G1) to form the rounded ends. Select and Join all four line segments into a closed curve.

Position the cyan closed curve over the spoke.



Perform Construct > Curve > Project to map the closed curve onto the spoke.



We need to produce a surface for making the pocket. To do so, select the wheel and perform Trim, using the projected curve as the cutting object.

I assigned a cyan style to the trimmed surface for visual clarity.



Select the cyan surface and Construct > Offset Shell. I used a 0.8” shell. Just be sure to use a value that doesn’t puncture through the back of the spoke.

The resulting shelled object with the wheel hidden for clarity.



Now, we need to keep the cyan object while reversing the Trim operation we made in the prior step. So, select the cyan object and press Ctrl-C to save it to the clipboard. Then hit the Undo button (4 times in my case) until the wheel reverts back to a solid object. ( I tried to Join the wheel back into a solid after the Trim, but without success, thus the Ctrl-C and Undo trick).

Ctrl-V to paste the cyan object back. (Hide the wheel and you’ll see it.) Select the cyan object and Circular Array to duplicate it onto each spoke.

Boolean > Difference the wheel while selecting all five cyan objects as the objects to subtract (you may need to hide the wheel to select the five cyan objects).

Pocketed spokes:



Select the top edges around all five pockets and Fillet 0.2” with Shape = Circular
Note: There were several very short edge pieces, so be sure to zoom in when selecting edges.

Filleted spoke pockets are shown below. I’ll leave them cyan Style so I can assign a unique material in the render program, such as a dark rough cast surface, to set this feature apart from the rest of the wheel.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.6 
Car Tutorial Part 6 - Wheel openings, Rims and Tires continued

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Wheel Nuts:
Draw a 0.25” radius circle and duplicate. Draw a hexagon, apply a small Fillet, and duplicate. Arrange as follows and Loft the four profile curves using Style = Straight with Cap Ends.

Fillet the front face and hex edges 0.05”. It’s not a totally accurate model of a nut, but good enough for the zoom level I expect to render.



Position the nut over the pocket.



In side view, hide the wheel and check the depth of the nut in the pocket.



Array > Circular the nut with Item Count = 5.



Draw the profile for the tire. I added notches (see inset picture). The notches will define unique surface areas so I can assign a unique material to the tire tread, the tire corners, and the sidewalls.



Revolve the blue tire profile using the wheel center line as the revolve axis points.
Assign a unique Style to the tire tread, the tire corners, and sidewalls. Select the entire tire and Join to create a Solid.

Next we’ll add three raised areas on the tire sidewalls. Draw a profile curve as follows and position it on the tire. Notice I picked a random location that does not align with any of the spokes. This will produce a more natural render as opposed to making them align.

Circular Array to produce three. Transform > Project the three curves onto the sidewall.



Select the tire and Trim using the three projected curves as the cutting object. Assign a unique Style to the resulting three surfaces. Select the entire tire and Join to create a solid.

Select the three purple surfaces and (using side view) Extrude them 0.05”. Select the entire tire and Join to create a solid.



At this point we should have two solid objects – a solid rim and a solid tire.

You could model the tire tread per this tutorial:
http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=5470.1
Modeling tire tread will greatly increase file size. So instead, I’ll use two tire tread bump maps in my render program – one for the main tread and one for the corner tread. Bump maps also allow you to easily try differed tread patterns.



EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.7 
Car Tutorial Part 7 – Front Grill

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com



Front Grill:
Draw a closed curve of the grill outline in front view.



Extrude (with Cap Ends) into the car body.



Boolean > Difference to create the cavity.
Fillet the grill opening 0.4”.



We’ll assign a mesh material using an opacity map in our render program. This gives us design flexibly we wouldn’t have if we modeled the mesh.



Grill Bar:
Our front end needs some chrome trim to accent the grill opening.
In front view select the edge(s) around the fillet that define the grill opening.



Ctrl+C Ctrl+V to copy / paste. When you copy / paste an edge this way, the “paste” becomes an independent curve object which is automatically selected. Join to create a closed curve and assign a unique style to the curve.

In front view and side view, size the curve smaller because we want it to “float” inside the grill opening. You may need to View Points and make some adjustments to the curve so it sits correctly within the opening.

Draw a 0.15” radius circle and place it near, but not touching, the curve. Use the circle as a Profile to Sweep the curve. The result is a tube which will be assigned a chrome material in the render program.



EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.8 
Car Tutorial Part 8 – Hood Scoops

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Hood Scoops:
Note: You may also want to try this technique: http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=4880.31

Draw a closed curve in top view to define one scoop area. Mirror the curve and position both over the hood.



Select the car body faces below the curve. Trim the curve with the selected faces. (Don’t trim with the entire car otherwise you’ll cut through the bottom.)

Scale each scoop panel to reduce length by 13” and width by 5". Resize the Z dimension to reduce the curvature (verify in side view) to better match the curvature of the hood.

Center the panels within the openings, then position them just a little toward the front of the car.

In side view, rotate the panels so they drop toward the front of the car. First, reposition the pivot point of the rotate tool to the rear of the panels.

Select edges of scoop and edges of corresponding body opening.
Blend with G2 Continuity and Bulge = 0.25

The images below show the Pivot point moved to the rear of the scoop panels to allow the panels to swing down:







Hood Scoop Grill:
In top view draw a closed curve for the hood scoop grill. Perform Curve > Project to map the curve onto the hood scoop. Be sure the curve has a good size radius on the ends because we need room for the fillet that comes later. Mirror the closed curve onto the opposite hood scoop.



Extrude the projected closed curve a couple of inches (with Both Sides checked). This will be our cutting object.



Select the car body and perform Boolean > Difference using the extraction as the object to subtract. The result is a new surface in the solid car body. Assign a unique Style to this hood grill surface.

Select the surface and Extrude 0.6” (with Both Sides and Cap Ends checked). The result is a solid.



Select the bottom face of the blue solid and Fillet 0.2” with Shape = Const Dist.
Select the car body and Boolean > Difference the blue solid.



Select the hood grill top edge and Fillet 0.34” with Shape = Const Dist.



Render with a bump map for the black grill:

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.9 
Car Tutorial Part 9 –Side Scoop

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Side Scoops:
There are multiple ways to make a scoop like this (blends, n-sided, lofts). After experimenting with a few techniques I decided to use the following:

In side view draw a closed curve for the side scoop. Notice all three corners have a radius to enable a good sized fillet later. Also, keep the corners away from the body seams, as doing so will help insure a good fillet.



In side view draw a closed “D” shape closed curve slightly taller than the scoop. In top view draw an arc that is slightly longer than the scoop curve. Arrange as follows:



Sweep the “D” shape profile curve using the arc as a rail (with Cap Ends checked).
In top view Extrude the scoop profile curve (Both Sides = checked).



Perform Boolean > Isect using the two solids.

The result is the cutting object for our side scoop.

Select the curved face nearest the car body and Fillet 0.16 Circular.



Position the object so it intersects the car body far enough to insure we can fillet the outer edges.
Select the object and Mirror it to the opposite side of the car.

Select the car body and Boolean > Difference using the side scope as the cutting object. Select the outer edges of the side scoop and Fillet 0.22” with Shape = Const Dist. Repeat for the scoop on the opposite side.

Let’s add a simple chrome piece to the scoop. In side view, draw an ellipse and size it as desired.



Draw a straight line through the two “quad” points and Trim it in half lengthwise. Revolve the resulting curve into a solid. Move and rotate the solid into place so it intersects the car body. Mirror the object to the opposite side scoop.



EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.10 
Car Tutorial Part 10 - Tail lights

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com



Tail light Opening:
Draw a large solid sphere (purple) and use the sizing handles to flatten it down.

Check rear and side views for proper depth into the car body. In side view, slightly rotate the squashed sphere for best appearance.



In back view, draw an oval (the yellow closed curve shown above) and use it as a cutting object to Trim the squashed sphere. This cut-out allows the rear lid of the car body to protrude.

Select the car body and the tail light object (purple) and run Boolean > Merge. We use Merge because it keeps all the pieces we need to move forward. A single Merge operation will create three objects: 1) The taillight opening (cavity), 2) The tail light (solid), and 3) A left-over solid piece of the purple cutting object that we’ll discard.

Immediately after the Merge, select the purple cutting object (by clicking on it at the back, NOT by selecting it in the Style window, because the cavity we want to keep is also the purple Style), and delete it.



After the deletion, you’ll see the tail light solid. Select it and give it a new Style (light red).



Hide the light red tail light. Hey – There’s our purple cavity created from the earlier Merge!

Why do we want the purple cavity even though it will be covered by the light red tail light?
1) We will assign an emissive light material to it in our render program so it back lights the tail light lens.
2) We will create a fillet around the cavity opening for a nice look.



With the light red tail light hidden, select the car body + purple cavity and fillet 0.4”.

At this point our car body remains a solid.

Now, un-hide the light red tail light and give it a Fillet of 0.25”.



Rendered result with a red glass material utilizing a bump map for texture:



Add a turn signal / backup light:

Draw a curve to define the light in rear view. Mirror the curve to place it on the opposite side.



Perform Boolean > Merge and select the tail light and both turn-signal curves. The result is three solids. Assign a unique Style to the turn signals and Fillet 0.1”.



In my render program I applied an emissive material to the taillight opening surface that sits behind the taillight. The actual taillight does not have an emissive material – it has a glass material with a cube texture map. Thus the light shines through the taillight “lens”.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.11 
Car Tutorial Part 11 - Headlights

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com



In top view, draw one headlight curve and mirror it to the opposite side.



In side view, Extrude (with Cap Ends checked) both curves downward.

Next, draw a cutting curve to define the bottom of the headlight buckets, and use it to Boolean > Difference the bottom off the green extrusions. Delete the two unwanted bottom pieces of the extrusion that resulted from the Boolean > Difference. Verify your car body and green extrusions are solids (not joined surfaces). If not solids, go back (Undo) and determine the cause.





Select both of the green extrusions plus the car body, and perform Boolean > Merge.

The Merge will produce six objects: 1) Two headlight cover solids in the same Style as the body 2) Two headlight buckets (green) 3) Two upper parts of the extrusion (green).

Delete the two unwanted upper green extruded pieces. This leaves two green headlight buckets below the fenders.

Select the two headlight cover solids and assign a unique Style (blue). Now hide the blue headlight covers.



Select the walls of the green headlight buckets and Delete.



Select the edges around the car body opening and the bottom edge of the bucket.



Blend with Bulge = 0.7. The Blend produces the desired rounding of the top edges which are impossible to get via Fillet in this particular complex geometry due to the tight radius curves.



Because of the prior operations, our car is no longer a Solid. So select all the objects that make up the car body so far and Join. Verify the result is a solid.

We now have solid headlight covers (blue) setting in headlight buckets (green) with rounded edges created from the Blend.

Hide all Styles except the two blue headlight cover solids. Select the bottom surface of each solid and perform Offset > Inset with a thickness of 0.25” , Inward direction, and a height of 0.85”. This will be our clear plastic headlight cover. If we didn’t inset the covers we would have a clearance problem later with the lighting assemblies to be placed inside the buckets.

After the Inset operation, select the top faces of the headlight solid and perform a Fillet at 0.1”.



Here is the final result of the headlight cover (blue solid), green headlight bucket and car body, all with nice rounded edges. We’ll decide later in the render program whether to make the green headlight bucket chrome, black, or assign it the body paint color.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.12 
Car Tutorial Part 12 – Headlight Assemblies

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

We’ll need a pair of headlight assemblies to go inside the buckets. Headlight assemblies can get very detailed, but I’ll keep this one simple.

A Loft will do the job. Draw four eclipses and arrange as follows. Select the curves in the sequence shown and Loft with Style = Loose and Cap Ends.



Assign a unique Style to the lens surface. The dark green lens will hold the emissive material in the render program to create the light.



Chrome or paint around the headlight opening? Use what you like best.



EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.13 
Car Tutorial Part 13 – Rear Fascia

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com



Rear Fascia:

In rear view draw an eclispe, and modify its control points to define a closed curve for the fascia.



In side view, extrude the curve.



Draw a curve to use as a cutting object and Boolean > Difference away the upper left area the extrusion.



Select the car body and the green extrusion and Trim.

The result of the Trim is a surface representing the fascia.

Select the surface and assign the light green fascia style.



In side view, select the surface and move it slightly toward the front of the car. This will enable us to create an indentation. Next, slightly reduce the size of the surface proportionally by reducing its length (X) one inch.





Select the outer edges of the fascia surface and the edges around the car body opening.



Perform Blend with Bulge = 0.01. (You’ll need to type this value in). Higher bulge values created pinching of the blended surface and a tear in the sharp lower corners. So always inspect after using Blend and type in a lower bulge factor if needed.

The car body is no longer a solid due to the Trim operation above. So select all the body objects (body, wheel openings, tail light opening, grill, headlight buckets and fascia, and perform a Join. Verify the body is now a solid.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.14 
Car Tutorial Part 14 – Exhaust Tips

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

In rear view draw a 1.4” radius circle for the exhaust. Also draw a 1” radius circle centered.



Make two copies of the large circle and one copy of the small circle. In side view arrange them as shown.



Select the circles in the order shown and Loft with Style = Loose and Cap Ends. The result is one exhaust tip.



Select the exhaust tip and perform Array Dir to duplicate and space apart. Finally, select the face of each tip and assign a unique Style so we can make them black in the render program.



We could model an exhaust opening and add fins to the fascia, but that’s level of detail beyond where I want to go with this model. So instead I added a bump map to the fascia material in my render program to create some texture features. Again, using bump maps for smaller details allows flexibility for experimentation in the render program.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.15 
Car Tutorial Part 15 – Windows

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Draw closed curves in side view to define the side windows. Draw a closed curve in top view for the rear window.



To see how the windows will appear, Project the curves onto the car body using Curve > Project. Undo and adjust your curve’s control points as needed for best appearance.



Now we can create the windows one at a time:

Project the rear window curve onto the car body using Curve > Project.

Select all the body faces inside and adjoining the window curve. Trim the body using the curve as a cutting object.

Select all the cut faces inside the curve and assign a unique Style.

In side view Extrude the faces into the car body 0.2” To do so, perform Extrude using the Dir option.

Due to the Trim, the car body is no longer a solid. So after extruding each window, select the body and Join. Verify the body is a solid.



The windshield will be modeled differently because we can’t project a side curve onto the entire windshield. Instead we’ll just Trim it without using the projection step.



With the windshield surfaces selected, change its dimensions proportionally in the Edit box by reducing the Z dimension by 0.1” (with Maintain Proportions checked). This shrinks the entire windshield creating an air gap.



In top view, select the edges on both sides of the gap. Perform Blend with Bulge = 1.0. This blend results in a slight step where the windshield meets the body. The step will create highlights and shadows to add definition and realism to the render. You can also assign the blend area a black or chrome Style rather than body paint color if you wish.

Due to the Trim operation, the car body is no longer a solid. So after performing the Blend, select the body and Join. Verify the body is a solid. If the body will not join back into a solid it is probably due to the blend not quite meeting all the edges, so undo and try a different Bulge factor.





Later I'll show how to add chrome (or black) trim to the windows. But if you prefer the appearance with no window trim, the slight indentation of the windows gives the car nice shadow and highlight definitions in the render program.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.16 
Car Tutorial Part 16 – Windows and Trim continued

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Side Windows:

Trim the body with the side window curves.

Two window surfaces are the result. Assign the window Style to those surfaces.

Next we will use Flow to warp our side widow inward at the rear.

In top view create a curve (yellow curve on right) that defines how we want the side window to curve inward at the rear. This is called the Target Curve.

Also draw a straight line (yellow) called the Base Curve as required by Flow.

Make the two lines exactly the same length as the side window.



Deform > Flow the window with the top two check boxes checked (Stretch and Ridged).

Delete the original side window and move the new warped (flowed) window into place. I needed to rotate the window slightly in both directions to achieve the desired position. I also needed to reduce the height of the window slightly. As you tilt, resize, and position the window, check it in side and 3D views to be sure you have the desired gap. The gap should be small at the front and smoothly increase toward the rear.



Before you continue, save some time by performing Mirror on the side window to duplicate it to the opposite side of the car. Position the mirrored window in place while viewing in top view.

The two lines we drew earlier for the Flow are seen on the right in orange.



Blend is our friend. So we’ll use it again to blend the windows to the car body.

Select the edges that surround the window and the edges that form the window opening. This is done easier in top view. Blend with Bulge = 0.25. Repeat for the opposite window.



Due to the Trims, the car body is no longer a solid. So after performing the Blends, select the body and Join. Verify the body is a solid. If the body will not join back into a solid it is probably due to the blend not quite meeting all the edges, so undo and try a different Bulge factor.



Window trim is optional:

Draw an eclipse and modify its control points to produce a profile curve 0.5” x 0.1” for the window opening trim.



Select the edges on the car body that make up a window opening. Ctrl+C Ctrl+V to copy / paste. When you copy / paste an edge this way, the “paste” becomes an independent curve object which is automatically selected. While it is selected, Join into a closed curve. This will be the rail for our Sweep.

Perform a Sweep using the window trim profile, and the window opening curve (rail). Assign a new Style to this object. Repeat for each window.

Windshield and side window trim shown at top of pillar:



Try the trim as chrome or black, or simply hide it.



EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.17 
Car Tutorial Part 17 - Body Seams

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com


Mannequin by Chipp Walters http://moi3d.com/forum/index.php?webtag=MOI&msg=7351.1

Door Seams:
Draw a curve in side view to represent the door seam. A typical door for a car like this is 44” to 45” wide. Be sure your curve has a radius at the bottom corners. Sharp corners won’t look natural in the render, and will probably cause issues with the operations we’ll perform two steps down.



Next we’ll project this 2D curve onto the car body so it generates a 3D curve setting on the body surface. In top view, Perform Curve > Project and select the door curve. Select the car body as the Projection Target. Pick your Direction start and end points as a straight line perpendicular to the 2D door curve you are projecting.

The projected curve looks like this:





Just a note here about drawing the body curve seam: Keep the ends of the curve slightly away from adjoining geometry that make up the widow openings. This way the sweep (purple) we’ll perform next won’t try to cross over into other complex areas which will likely make the following steps fail. You can Show Points on the projected curve and pull the ends back slightly as needed.

In top view draw a 0.12” radius circle and move it near (but not touching or intersecting) the body seam curve. This will be the profile for sweeping the door seam.

By keeping the circle (profile) slightly away and off of the curve (rail), we are telling the Sweep function to use Auto-place mode. Auto-place mode keeps the profile (circle) perpendicular to the rail as it sweeps, which is very important for this step.

Select the circle (profile) and perform Sweep (Freeform, Regular, Auto) with capped ends, using the projected 3D door seam curve as the rail.

Boolean > Difference the car body with the purple tube created by the sweep. The result is a half-round channel representing the door seam.



Repeat these steps for the opposite door, re-using your 2D door curve.
Verify the body has remained a solid after this operation.



In your render program you can darken/lighten the paint color of the seams slightly to make them more or less pronounced according to your taste.

Use the same technique for other body seams such as the hood. In this case your 2D curve, drawn in top view, will be a closed curve.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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7389.18 
Car Tutorial Part 18 - Fuel Door

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Fuel Door Assembly:

Let’s make a round fuel door 5” in diameter with a flange 7” in diameter.

Draw a profile curve 3.5” x 0.5”. Make sure the left end has a radius. Select the curve and revolve. The resulting solid is the basic fuel door flange.



Draw a 2.5” radius circle and two rectangles (2” x 0.8”). Arrange per the top drawing.

Make a copy and Trim / Join to create the closed curve shown at the bottom. Select the curve and Fillet 0.25”. This step of rounding all eight corners is very important.



Center the curve over the blue solid and Boolean > Merge. The result is two solid objects.



Assign a unique Style (color green) to the center object (cap). Fillet 0.1”.

Select the inside edges on the blue flange and Fillet 0.1”.

Select the green cap and move it slightly above the blue flange.

Shrink the green cap proportionally by changing its Z dimension in the Edit box (with Maintain Proportions checked) from 0.5” to 0.49”. The result is a small clearance between the fuel cap and the flange.



Next we’ll make the recessed mounting screw heads. Draw a circle with a 0.26” radius. Draw Curve > Polygon and make a 6 sided polygon inside the circle. Duplicate the hex curve and move it back. Draw a slightly larger circle and move it forward to define the bevel. Loft the four curves using Loft Style = Straight, Profile = Exact, and Cap Ends = Un-checked. Select the rear hex curve and perform Planer to cap it off. Select the entire object and Join.



Position the screw head at the 12 o’clock position on the blue flange. Rotate the screw head axis as necessary so it is tangent with the curvature of the flange. Position the screw head so it sets just above the surface of the flange. Select the screw head and perform Array > Circular using Item Count = 6 to place six screw heads around the flange.

Boolean Difference the blue flange with the screws. Select the blue assembly, the orange screws, and Join.

Here’s the final Fuel Door assembly which will be recessed into the car body. It has more detail than found in most other parts of the car model. But because it will be added to the car body in an area used for some close up render shots, the level of detail here will pay off.



Position the Fuel Door assembly where you want it on the car body. Rotate as needed to make it tangent with the body in top and back views.

Select the edge that makes the front of the blue flange). Ctrl+C Ctrl+V to copy / paste. When you copy / paste an edge this way, the “paste” becomes an independent curve object which is automatically selected. Select all the segments of this new curve and Join (shown in yellow below). Enlarge the curve radius 0.5” to produce the larger circle shown in yellow below.



Select the body panels that surround the Fuel Door assembly and Trim with the large yellow curve (circle). Delete the sections of the body that were trimmed. The result is an air gap around the assembly. In back view, move the Fuel Door assembly so all parts of it are slightly inside the car body.



Select the edges just below the fillet on the blue flange, and the edges around the car body hole. Perform Blend with G2 Continuity and Bulge= 0.8. Assign the car body Style to the blended surface.



Hide the blue flange, select the inner edges of the car body opening and perform Planer to close the bottom. This insures we can make the car body a solid again. Because of the prior Trim operation, the car body is no longer a solid. Select the entire body, Join, and verify it’s now a solid.

Unhide the Fuel Door assembly and render. I applied a spun metal material.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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7389.19 
Car Tutorial Part 19 - Door Handles

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com

Door Handles:

Draw a solid sphere with 3.5” radius.

Resize it using the bounding box handles to X=3”, Y=7”,Z= 3.5”



In side view, select the object and Show Points. Adjust the points to taper the right side.



In top view draw a straight line and use it to split the object in half (Boolean > Difference with Keep Parts checked) lengthwise. Verify the result is two solids. Slide the objects apart.

In side view draw a diagonal line and Boolean >Difference. The red piece on the left will become the handle.



Select just the outer face(s) of the red section above and copy/paste, then Join. Perform Offset > Shell on the resulting surface at 0.25” thickness, Direction = Normal. Verify the result is a solid and Fillet 0.08”.



We’ll use the solid object (below) on the right created earlier to make an indentation in the car door, then resize and position the shelled handle to fit inside.



Position the object so that it intersects the door. Rotate each axis so it is tangent to the door surface, but leave a bit of it sticking out.



Mirror the object to the opposite door.

Boolean > Difference the objects with the car body. Select the edges where the indentation meets the car body and Fillet 0.25”



Move the shelled door handle into place over the door indentation. Resize it slightly smaller by editing its Z dimension with Maintain Proportions checked. In top view, flatten the handle slightly by moving its boundary box handles. Rotate and move the handle in all three axis until it fits nicely within the door recess.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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 From:  ed (EDDYF)
7389.20 
Car Tutorial Part 20 - Badges

Ed Ferguson, CascadiaDesignStudio.com



Badges:

Finally, we'll add a couple of badges. (Some cars don’t need no stinking badges, but ours does :)

The size is not important at this step as we will resize as needed when placing the badges on the car.

Draw a large circle and a smaller one that intersects. Use Array > Circular to create three evenly placed around the large circle. Select all four circles and Boolean > Merge. The result is the curve in yellow.



Draw a profile curve and Revolve it into a round button-shape badge.

Position the curve made above over the revolved badge and Boolean > Merge. Delete the unwanted piece and Fillet the remaining solid.





Make a copy for the front of the car and one for the rear. Resize / flatten as needed and rotate as needed to place the badges tangent to the curvature of the car’s body. Position so the badge slightly intersects the body.



I hope you have found this tutorial useful and will be inspired to make and share your own creations.

EDITED: 11 May 2015 by EDDYF


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